Wednesday, December 30, 2009
In information technology, a white paper is often a paper written by a lead product designer to explain the philosophy and operation of a product in a marketplace or technology context. Many if not most Web sites for software products include a white paper in addition to a frequently-asked questions and more detailed product specifications.
What is GNU?
GNU is a operating system and its composed entirely with free software.
Its Name acronyms of "Gnu Not Unix".
Development of GNU was initiated by Richard Stallman.
what is GNU GPL?
GNU GPL :=GPL acronyms for General Public License
GPL is developed for GNU project(Ref:what is GNU).
GNU is a best example of the Copyleft(Ref:what is Copy Left) license.
GNU impose derived work also come under Copy left license.
What is Copy left license?
Its removing restriction on distributing copies and modified version of work for others.
Same freedom should be in modified version.
Saturday, December 12, 2009
This article will give the overview about java card technology.In this article i have introduced new method of explaning the new concepts like question and answer format.Like how Java Card Virtual Machine different from Java Virtual Machine.
Basic Knowledge about Java Programming.
Valuable inputs are always welcome.
what is java card technology?
Java card technology enables programs written in the java programming language to runs on Smart Card and other resources constrained devices.
How about smart card Memory and Process capability?
Smart card is the one of the smallest computing platform.
Most of the smart card memory constrain about 1 KB RAM,16 KB EEPROM(Electronic Erasable Programmed Read Only Memory) and 24 KB of ROM(Read Only Memory).
what are the Challenges in Smart Card Technology?
Greatest challenges of java card technology design is to fit Java System software in a smart card. (In terms of Memory space).
what is the solution for implementing smart card technology into the Smart card?
Solution is to apply the split model of the Java Card Virtual Machine(JCVM).
Java card Virtual machine is split into the two parts. one is runs “Off-Card VM” and others that runs “ON-Card VM”.
“ON-Card VM ” is embedded with the java Card by java card vendor.
“Off-Card VM” is used by the Java card programming(Applet) application developer in development environment.
so many task will not run on “ON-Card” VM such as class loading,byte code verification,resolution and linking and optimization, are dedicated to the “Off-Card VM”.
How the Java card Technology runtime environment is working(communication between java program and smart card memory)?
Java card technology defines a runtime environment that supports the smart card memory,communication,security, and application execution model.
Java card runtime environment conforms to the smart card international standard ISO 7816.
what is the features of the Java Card Runtime Environment?
Its provides the clear separation between the smart card system and the application.
JCRE handle the Underlying complexity and details of the smart card system.
For Developer its providing the High level Programming interface to communicate to the smart card(API).
Java Card technology defines a platform on which application written in the java programming language(Applet) can runs in smart cards and the application.
How the split Virtual machine(ON-Card,Off-Card) implementation is developed?
This implementation is considered of the three parts.
Java Card 2.2.1 Virtual Machine (JCVM).
Java Card 2.2.1 Runtime Environment(JCRE).
Java Card 2.2.1 Application Programming Interface(API).
JCVM:Specification defines subset of java programming language and virtual machine suitable for smart card application.
JCRE: Describe java card runtime behavior including memory management,applet management and other runtime features.
API:Describe the set of core and extension java packages and classes for programming the smart card applications.till now we have looked the overview of the Java card technology even who have idea about java technology also understand.
feedback is always welcome to improve My blogspt.
Thanks and Regards,
"Do Better what ever you do".
Thursday, December 3, 2009
History of Smart Card:
Smart card is integrated with almost every human life in the form of Credit Card/Debit Card /PAN Card/Driving license.
In future Indian government has plan to issue Smart Card for every citizen in India through Unique ID(UID) Project. Using UID we can track the every human details from birth to death like data of birth,any government scheme is reached to individual,below poverty level,financial position etc.
So here i am giving the brief history about the smart card.
This article prepared bae on “Smart Card Hand Book”.This article brief about only about who and when the smart card development is started and what is the current trend.
Birth of Smart Card :
The Birth of the smart card is started in the USA in the early 1950.
Smart Card is in the form of plastic card(Made of PVC).
The first commercial use of smart card is issued by “Dinner Club in 1950”.Initially this card is accepted by only few restaurants and hotel so its called “Travel and Entertainment Card”.
The entry of Visa and Master card is change the plastic card into the modern “Plastic Money” in the form of Credit Card.
Use the Smart Card as “Credit Card” introduced in USA. later its spread all across the world.
Generation of the Smart Card:
First Generation: This type of card generally served as data storage media like card holder name,signature using that only they have to authenticate.
- But its increased the fraud and forgery's .Even the Bank and Merchant has to record the card holder name and signature and authenticate the same also provide the lot of loop hole in security.
Second Generation: Magnetic stripe on the back of the card, which allow the digital data to be stored on the card as machine readable form as supplement to the visual information.
second generation card are minimized the lot of paper work on this field.
Card identification is based on the Personal Identification Number(PIN).
This method has lot of loop hole in security , any one can read,rewrite and delete the data with necessary equipment.
Micro electronics:In 1970 Integrate data storage and processing logic on a single silicon chip and make into the single integrated Circuit.
This Integrated Circuit is patent by German Inventors “Jurgen Dethloff” and “Helmut Grotrupp” in 1968.
This is followed by another Japan inventor “Kunitaka Arimura” in 1970.
But the real progress is begin when “Roland Morena from French” registered his patent in 1974.
After 1974 the raw material for the smart card development cost is reduced.
So basically the German and French are the played important role in developing and marketing the smart card to the world.
Break Trough in Smart Card:
In 1984 the French PTT(Postal and Telecommunication services agency) successfully launched the trail version of smart card .
This smart card has high security and reliable.
From 1984 to 1985 the German was conducted the trail of smart card from magnetic strip to the Optical storage.
This comparative test is lead the development of the card in more extension.
By 1986, Several million smart telephone card were in circulation with France alone. The total rose to 60 million in 1990.
we will look in next article how the smart card is affected in telephone and bank industry.Reader's comments and feedbacks are always welcome
Thanks & Regards,